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Claudette Colvin.

Claudette Colvin (b, September 5, 1939) is a African American woman from Alabama. In 1955, at the age of 15, she refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus to a white person, in violation of local law. Her arrest preceded civil rights activist Rosa Parks’ (on December 1, 1955) by nine months.

http://www.core-online.org/History/colvin.htm